Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Sciences (BSMLS)

Medical laboratory scientists are trained to work in clinical chemistry, hematology, immunohematology, immunology and microbiology, with various sub-specialties in each of these major areas. The program of study is designed to provide the knowledge and technical skills necessary to qualify an individual for work in a diagnostic clinical laboratory, research, or industry.

 

Program Objectives

·         Graduates will be competent to function as entry-level medical laboratory scientists in any clinical or public health laboratory environment;

·         Graduates will demonstrate problem-solving and critical thinking skills;

·         Graduates will demonstrate effective written and verbal communication skills;

·         Graduates will demonstrate the highest professional and ethical standards;

·         Graduates will Collaborates with other professionals within the health care community to assess the changing needs of the medical laboratory, designs solutions to meet the challenges, and monitors the quality of laboratory practice.

 

Career Prospects

There are many employers, representing many different industries that are interested in the skills, knowledge and competencies of medical laboratory technologists, including:

  • Hospitals and clinics
  • Federal government (public health laboratories)
  • Pharmaceutical or chemical industries
  • Biotechnology companies
  • Veterinary clinics
  • Public or private research laboratories
  • Colleges and universities

 

Program Structure

To be awarded a Bachelor of Science Degree in Medical Laboratory Science (BSMLS), a student must complete the prescribe courses and earn at least 160 credits, with 120 coming from core/concentration courses.

 

Core courses (32 credits)

BIO 210: Anatomy and Physiology I

BIO 220: Anatomy and Physiology II

CHM 210: General Chemistry

NUS 210: Fundamentals of Nursing Practice

BIO 310: Bioethics

MCB 310: General Microbiology and Infectious Disease

PHA 320: Clinical Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics

NUS 335: Medical Sociology and Anthropology

 

Concentration courses (40 credits)

MLS 210: Introduction to Medical Laboratory Sciences

MLS 215: Clinical Specimen Collection, Processing and Handling

MLS 310: Laboratory Management and Quality Assurance

MLS 315: Medical Parasitology and Mycology

MLS 320: Immunohematology I (Hematology and Coagulation)

MLS 325: Immunohematology II (Immunology and Blood Banking)

MLS 330: Clinical Bacteriology and Virology

MLS 410: Histology and Cytology

MLS 415: Clinical Biochemistry

MLS 420: Advanced Medical Laboratory Techniques

MLS 425: Integrated clinical Laboratory Cases

 

Preceptorships (32 credits)

MLS 213: Clinical preceptorship in sample collection, Processing and Handling 2 months

MLS 313: Applied Clinical Bacteriology and Virology

MLS 323: Applied Clinical Hematology and Coagulation

MLS 413: Clinical preceptorship in Immunology and Blood Banking

MLS 423: Clinical preceptorship in Histology and Cytology

MLS 433: Clinical preceptorship in Clinical Biochemistry

MLS 443: Clinical Preceptorship in Parasitology and Mycology

 

Research Courses (8 Credits)

MLS 480: Research Design & Seminar Presentation,

MLS 498: Medical Laboratory Science Research Project

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

BIO 210: Anatomy and Physiology I

This course is an introduction to anatomy and physiology and assures no prior knowledge of the human body by student. It is directed to prepare students for health-related professions such medical laboratory technology. Topics to be covered include:  The Chemical Level of Organization, Tissue level of Organization, Digestive System, Respiratory System, Circulatory & Cardiovascular System, Lymphatic System and Immunity, The Renal System, Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Homeostasis.

 

BIO 220: Anatomy and Physiology II

This course is a continuation of Human o anatomy and physiology I. topics to be covered include: Life Processes, Major systems of the human body, Special Senses, Reproductive System, Integument System: Support and Movement.

 

MLS 210: Introduction to Medical Laboratory Sciences

This course is aimed at giving an understanding of the basic organization of the laboratory unit of the health sector, the major equipment, their uses and preventive maintenance of this equipment in the laboratory. It is equally designed to demonstrate basic management concepts required for a manual laboratory. Topics include: organization and staffing of  a  laboratory  service,  structure  and  organization  of  a  laboratory  service  network,  effective communication in the laboratory, health and safety in the laboratory, common laboratory hazards and associated accidents, microbial hazards, chemical and reagent hazards ,equipment and glassware hazards, use and storage of toxic, corrosive and harmful chemicals, prevention of accidents involving chemicals and reagents, decontamination and disposal of Infectious material , professionalization, guidelines for preparation of stains, solutions and chemical reagents.

MLS 215: Clinical Specimen Collection, Processing and Handling

This course is designed to teach students the role of the laboratory in proper specimen collection and handling of specimens, standard protocols for collection, handling and processing of specimens for transport or receipt in to or from the laboratory.   content:  Role of the Laboratory in Proper Specimen Collection, Standard Protocols for Collection, Transport and Processing of Specimens, Specimen handling and processing; general rules for handling specimens, specimen receipt and preliminary observations, labeling of specimens, criteria for specimen rejection, microscopic examination of direct mounts for presumptive diagnoses where applicable, Precautions for Packaging and Mailing of Specimens.

 

MLS 213: Clinical Preceptorship in Sample Collection, Processing and Handling

Student will spend 40 hours per week in a diagnostic laboratory under the supervision of a medical technologist to familiarize themselves with the general functioning of laboratory, safety measures etc, and to gain practical experiences in clinical sample collection, handling, processing and storage. Prerequisite: MLS 215

BIO 310: Bioethics

This course aimed at presenting the basic concepts, principles, and elements of ethics as well as formulating the ethical principles relevant to medical practice, the doctor-patient relationship, and related areas of concern. The course begins with a brief overview of ethics, and them moves to develop and consider the moral values and principles relevant to medical practice and bioethics. The course aims to consider the defense of general views on the moral values involved in bioethics, as well as the complicated issues of applying this general knowledge to particular situations. The course hopes to develop moral wisdom (knowledge about ethics and the ability to think ethically) and moral virtue (a stronger commitment to act morally). Topics to be covered include: the nature of the Doctor-Patient Relationship, principles of Patient Decision-Making, Life-Sustaining Treatments (including CPR, and medical nutrition and hydration), Reproductive Issues (including contraception, artificial reproductive technologies, abortion), arguments for Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Research Ethics (including a consideration of the Stem Cell controversy), etc.

 

 

 

MCB 310: General Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

The overall goal of this course is to introduce students to the field of microbiology and emerging infectious diseases. It will cover a wide range of topics including bacteriology, virology, microbial pathogenicity and epidemiology, body Defense Mechanisms against infection, the pathophysiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases, host-pathogen relationships and the mechanisms behind the emergence of new microbial threats.as well as the pharmacology of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, The intent is to provide an understanding of the medically relevant bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens and the diseases they produce. The emphasis will be on the pathophysiology of these diseases, the nature of host-parasite interactions and the different clinical syndromes caused by these pathogens. It is not the purpose of this course to teach the clinical management and therapy of infectious diseases.

 

 

NUS 335: Medical Sociology and Anthropology

The main objective of this course is to enable students to describe the social, political, economic, and cultural forces that influence social behavior by exploring health, illness, and health care from a sociological perspective. Topics to be covered: definition of sociology; Historical background ; Diagnosis of modern society: Conte and Marx; Basic concepts of society, culture  and structure  in the analysis of social behavior;  Basic analytical  concepts,  social  processes, institution, the nature of human groups; Family deviant behavior; Social Theories; Theorists of modern society, Social stratification and social stratification in East Africa; Power Structure; Ideology and Economic institutions in East Africa, Impact of ideology on social and Economic development in East Africa; Religion in Society; Integrative system of society, Impact of Christianity on African traditional beliefs in East Africa; Formal Organization; Bureaucracy in Industrial societies; Social conflict and social change; Social functions of conflict in society, Conflict and social change (Marx etc), Social disorganization (anomia and deviance: Durkeim), Medical sociology. Definition of Anthropology; School of thought in Anthropology; Cultural evaluation, Diffusion of culture, Historical relation, Cultural integration, Functional approaches, Structural approaches; Basic concepts in Anthropology: The study of culture, culture change as an instrument of adaptation, material culture, thought and culture, personality and culture, Social control, Principles of social structure, National identity, Kinship and marriage, Language and culture, Sickness and heali

MLS 310: Laboratory Management and Quality Assurance

This course is aimed at enabling students get basic information about laboratory management and quality assurance. It will cover Laboratory management and quality assurance in; Clinical chemistry, centrifugation techniques, spectra techniques, microscopic techniques, culture techniques, antimicrobial sensitivity techniques etc

 

MLS 315: Medical Parasitology and Mycology

This course deals with the classification of medically important parasites and fungi, their life cycles, characteristic features, mode of life, clinical manifestations, laboratory examination and identification of these parasites and the different methods of preventing and controlling parasitic infections.

 

MLS 320: Immunohematology I (Hematology and coagulation)

This course is designed to give students an understanding the normal hematopoitic system, peripheral blood and bone marrow morphology, the coagulation process with the different blood clotting factors and simple manual techniques used such as complete blood cell counts, differential counts and erythrocyte sedimentation rate as well as an understanding of the disorders associated with blood cells, bleeding and coagulation disorders and the mechanisms involved. Laboratory evaluation of the type and extend of these disorders will also be described.

 

MLS 325: Immunohematology II (Immunology and Blood Banking)

This course is designed to provide basic information on the immune system, how the blood transfusion service is organized, legal issues in blood transfusion practice and blood transfusion practice, an evolution of the immune system, development of the immune system and also how the immune system provides immunity against microorganisms. It will also provide basic knowledge on the evolution of blood transfusion and advanced processes involved in transfusion, diseases associated with blood transfusion etc.

 

MLS 330: Clinical Bacteriology and Virology

This course is designed to identify the different types of bacterial and viral pathogens that can be isolated from different body specimens, the different methods that can be used to identify theses pathogens and to a lesser extent antimicrobial/viral therapy. Issues to be discussed: Classification of medically important bacteria: staphylococci and Related Genera, Streptococci, Enterococci and Related Genera, Neisseria and Branhamella [Moraxella], Gram positive rods, Gram negative rods especially Enterobacteria and Vibrio, Spirochetes, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma etc. Microscopic techniques used in microbiology, Culture of bacteriological pathogens, Biochemical test used to identify bacteria, Bacteriological examination of specimens, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Classification of medically important viruses, Diagnostic techniques used in virology, Biochemical test used to identify viruses, viral examination of specimens.

 

PHA 320: Clinical Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics

This course is designed to prepare students for the pharmacological requirements of practice as a primary care provider. Emphasis is placed on general principles of Pharmacology, drug procurement, storage, distribution, use and control. Autonomic pharmacology and autocoids, anti-microbial agents, Analgesics, anesthetic agents, Respiratory and endocrine pharmacology, euro and psycho pharmacology, GIT pharmacology, Drugs acting on blood and bone marrow, Eye, Skin and ENT; Cytotoxic agents and Toxicology. Obstetric Pharmacology. Alternative medicine.

 

MLS 313: Clinical preceptorship in Bacteriology and Virology

Students will gain practical concepts in medical bacteriology and virology procedures and data interpretation in a laboratory setting.  (Forty hours per week for four weeks at assigned clinical affiliate laboratory). Prerequisite: MLS 330

 

MLS 323: Clinical preceptorship in Hematology and Coagulation

This course will provide practical application of theory and concepts in hematology and coagulation with the emphasis on practical experience in all phases of hematology/coagulation testing in the clinical laboratory. (Forty hours per week for four weeks at assigned clinical affiliate laboratory). Prerequisite: MLS 320

 

 

MLS 410: Histology and Cytology

This course is designed to give an understanding of the nature of cells of the body, tissues and their functions, processing and examination of tissues and cells in histopathology. It covers the following aspects: cell structure and function, overview of microscopy, tissues and tissue examinations, tissue processing and staining, and introduction to cytology techniques

 

MLS 415: Clinical Biochemistry

The course describes common tests used to assist with the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. On completion of this course, you will be able to demonstrate and evaluate current knowledge in the basic principles and practices of the medical biochemistry laboratory, including Acid-base balance; Water and electrolyte balance; Physiology and chemical pathology of renal function; Clinical Chemistry of normal liver function and alterations seen in disease states. Drugs and their effects on biochemical values, disorders of amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, dyslipidemias, and routine chemistries for major organ system functions.

 

MLS 420: Advanced Medical Laboratory Techniques

This course comprises of a comprehensive overview of the various routine diagnostic tests in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The fundamental principles of molecular technology and techniques used in clinical and research laboratories will be covered. Techniques will be addressed in the context of the different areas of the laboratory that use basic and molecular technologies to include genetics, oncology, infectious disease, and identity testing both for forensic purposes and transplant use. Topics include: nucleic acid chemistry, molecular genetics & cytogenetics; nucleic acid extraction and hybridization; target, signal and probe amplification; sequencing, microarrays, and in-situ hybridization techniques, protein techniques: ELISA, ELISPOT, SDS-PAGE, western blotting.

 

MLS 425: Integrated Clinical Laboratory Cases

This course introduces students to the various disciplines that comprise the medical laboratory and stresses the importance of approaching diagnostic testing in an interdisciplinary manner.

 

MLS 413: Clinical preceptorship in Immunology and Blood Banking

The student will spend 40 hours per week for 4 weeks in the Blood Banking Department of an affiliate laboratory.  The time will include both observation and performance of tests under the supervision of a medical technologist.  The department traditionally offers practice in blood grouping, antibody screening and compatibility testing for transfusion of blood products.  However, the affiliate laboratory may combine serology in any of the other departments, leaving the fifth week for a choice of weekend, evening or a special rotation of the student and instructor’s choice.  Prerequisite: MLS 325

 

MLS 423: Clinical Preceptorship in Histology and Cytology

The student will spend 40 hours per week for 4 weeks in the Histology and Cytology Department of affiliate laboratory. The time will include both observation and performance of tests under the supervision of a medical technologist.  The department traditionally offers practice that will demonstrate the techniques required to prepare, and process a specimen adequate for histologic/cytologic diagnosis. In this context, emphasis will be placed on safe professional practice and the delivery of care. Prerequisite: MLS 410

 

MLS 433: Clinical Preceptorship in Clinical Biochemistry

The student will spend 40 hours per week for four weeks in the Clinical Chemistry Department of an affiliate laboratory.  The time will include both observation and performance of tests under the supervision of a medical technologist. This department traditionally offers practice in the use of highly automated chemistry analyzers, instrument maintenance, troubleshooting and statistics of lab operations. Prerequisite: MLS 415

MLS 443: Clinical Preceptorship in Medical Parasitology and Mycology

The aim of this course is to equip students with knowledge on parasites of clinical importance and mycoses, their diagnostic methodology and result interpretation. The student will spend 40 hours per week for four weeks in the parasitology and mycology Department of an affiliate laboratory.  The time will include both observation and performance of tests under the supervision of a medical technologist. This department traditionally offers practice in theories related to parasites of medical importance and Mycoses, Basic diagnostic parasitology and mycology methodology, Interpretation of results, both for clinical and infection control purposes, Superficial and deep seated parasitic and fungal infection, Special problems associated with the immunocompromised host, antiphrastic agents, Anti-fungal agents and treatment strategies. Prerequisite: MLS 315

 

MLS 480: Research Design & Seminar Presentation

The research design project involves an individual student or a small group of students working as a team to put the knowledge acquired in previous courses into concrete praxis to design and present a nominated project. The tasks include the study of the available processes, process selection, calculation of material and energy balances, preparation of flow sheets, preparation of a design report and drawing of the plant layout.

 

MLS 498: Medical Laboratory Science Research Project

A program of study on an approved research topic in Medical Laboratory Science will be followed up by a supervisor. This supervised individual study provides an opportunity for in-depth reading and research on a topic selected by the student and supervisor. Students in this program of study may carry out a pilot project in preparation for a thesis or dissertation. Students are expected to select a researchable problem in theology and carry out a study on it. This project should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) format.

 

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